I’m about to expose a hole in my textual migration model of the Torah. Not that I think this disproves or diminishes what I’ve already established, but rather it’s an aberration I can’t seem to explain.
When Moses approaches the burning bush, God commands him to take off his sandals (Ex. 3:5) because he is standing on holy ground. There’s no similar act elsewhere in the Bible except for when Joshua encounters the commander of the Lord’s army (Joshua 5:15) in the conquest of Canaan, which is clearly written to parallel the Mosaic cycle. Removing shoes in reverence seems to be a rather irregular custom for Judaism in general, depending more on surrounding culture and circumstances. From my own experience touring Hindu temples in India, it seems more characteristic of the far east than the near east.
While that’s possibly an unprovable hypothesis, I think there’s a very clear comparison to Hinduism in the book of Exodus. Coincidentally after the episode with the golden calf that corresponds to the Hindu sacred cow, Moses and YHWH have a near face-to-face conversation with striking parallels to the most popular and important sacred text of India, the Bhagavad Gita.
Then Moses said, “Now show me your glory.”
And the Lord said, “I will cause all my goodness to pass in front of you, and I will proclaim my name, the Lord, in your presence. I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion. But,” he said, “you cannot see my face, for no one may see me and live.”
Then the Lord said, “There is a place near me where you may stand on a rock. When my glory passes by, I will put you in a cleft in the rock and cover you with my hand until I have passed by. Then I will remove my hand and you will see my back; but my face must not be seen.”
In the Bhagavad Gita, prince Arjuna consults his chariot driver on the battlefield, who he then discovers is really the supreme deity Krishna in disguise. From the text according to Gandhi:
[Arjuna said] “Thou art indeed just as Thou hast described Thyself, Parameshvara. I do crave to behold now that form of Thine as Ishvara. If Lord, Thou thinkest it possible for me to bear the sight, reveal to me, O Yogeshvara, Thy imperishable form.”
The Lord said: “Behold, O Partha, my forms divine in their hundreds and thousands, infinitely diverse, infinitely various in color and aspect. Behold the Adityas, the Vasus, the Rudras, the two Ashwins, and the Maruts. Behold, O Bharata, numerous marvels never revealed before. Behold today, O Gudakesha, in my body, the whole universe moving and unmoving, all in one, and whatever else thou cravest to see. But thou canst not see Me with these thine own eyes. I give thee the eye divine. Behold My sovereign power!”
Bhagavad Gita 11:4-8
For civilizations so far removed from each other, these are incredibly close in form if not in context or content. Both address the problem of God’s invisibility, while they interpret it differently and present widely different solutions. Frankly, I’m at a loss to explain it with any certainty, but I will offer some suggestions. First, while not assuming the priority of either narrative, it seems likely one is a polemic of the other. The incident of Moses seeing God’s back seems to interrupt the narrative, and theologically has frustrated apologists ever since, almost suggesting it’s a later interpolation. Still, it’s difficult to explain a possible detour to India in the migration path. At some point these two cultures must have come into contact with each other, or with an intermediary such as Egypt. It’s almost unthinkable, not just from a literalist perspective, to assume Hebrew culture made it as far as India and incorporated that influence into their national epic, so it seems more plausible that the Bhagavad Gita was the traveling text in this instance. Unfortunately, I’m hardly an Egyptologist, so I wouldn’t be able to determine the relationship between those two cultures as easily.
Such is textual analysis. While many times it provides insight, at times like this it raises more questions than it answers. If anybody more knowledgable in these subjects (or not) has any input, it would be welcome.